Foot problems are diverse and caused by many factors. Amongst the most common are plantar fasciitis, calcaneus spine, metatarsalgia, Morton neuroma , tendinopathies, including pains caused by deformation of the forefoot (Hallux Valgus) or unsual changes in the shape of the foot due to inappropriate footwear.
PLEASE FIND BELOW THE MOST COMMON FOOT AND KNEE PATHOLGIES :
Conditions of the Forefoot
This inflammation of the forefoot is often the result of one’s morphology, over-weight or the wearing of inappropriate footwear such as high-heeled shoes. This can result in a burning sensation under the forefoot. It can be treated by reducing the pressure on the metatarsal bones or by wearing shock-absorbing insoles in order to relieve and modify the pressure on the forefoot.
Pain in the forefoot may also be a symptom of Morton’s neuroma, a benign growth of nerve tissue (also called a pinched nerve) that usually occurs between the third and fourth metatarsal head. In addition to a pain which feels like an electric current which travels toward the tips of the toes, patients may experience numbness or the sensation of walking on a pebble. Generally, the pain disappears when shoes are taken off. The recommended treatment consists of releasing tension in the intermetatarsal space.
This is an unusual deformation of the big toe mostly due to genetics which over time can worsen. This can lead to a modification of the entire shape of the forefoot and may cause shortening of the adjacent toes, which then leads to pain in the forefoot. In the most common type of bunion, the big toe turns inward from its normal position and angles toward the second toe. The treatment consists of either correcting the balance and pressure of the foot or using night compressions to prevent tendinous contractions.
Second metatarsal overload syndrome
This condition consists of intense pressure on the second toe, often the result of an hallus valgus deviation of the big toe due to insufficient stability of the foot. This may result in plantar callus and difficulties in wearing shoes. The recommended treatment may involve balancing the pressure of the forefoot by providing better and balanced support of the foot.
Many conditions can cause pain in the metatarsal bones and toes. This condition of the sesamoid bones, located under the first metatarsal head, can cause pain under the big toe. In general, this can be treated by releasing pressure under the first metatarsal head by spreading the body’s weight towards the other metatarsal heads.
Hallux rigidus (big toe stiffness)
Hallux rigidus is stiffness and pain in the big toe caused by arthritis of the metatarsophalangeal joint. It’s a form of degenerative arthritis locking the metatarsophalangeal joint which leads to difficulties in walking due to a decreased flexibility. To avoid pain the patient will position his foot outwards, thus reducing the size of steps taken. The treatment involves addressing the walking process by optimizing the articulation movement of the metatarsal phalangeal joint.
Pathologies of the hindfoot
Plantar fasciitis is an inflammation of a thick band of tissue called the plantar fascia that runs across the bottom of the foot, connecting the heel bone to the toes. This causes pain in the heel area. Plantar fascia is a fibrous tissue which covers the muscles which stretches the arch of the foot. It contributes to the transmission of energy from the back of the foot to the forefeet which is required for walking. Amongst the most common causes of this condition are flatfeet and over- weight. The treatment consists of helping to support the inner arch of the foot in order to diminish tension in the plantar aponeurosis area.
Plantar aponeurosis more commonly known is a flat sheet of thickened, poorly vascularised and poorly innovated, deep fibrous connective tissue of the foot. Common signs of pain in the heel and symptoms may include; localized pain, pain on palpation of the heel, pain with the first steps after resting. As this pathology is often related to a retracted Achilles tendon, the treatment aims to relax the overloaded pressure on the Achilles system.
Achilles tendonitis is mostly common amongst atheles which is an inflamation of the tendon situated in the sural triceps at of the calcanemum. Most cases Achilles tendonitis can be treated by elevating the back of the foot in order to absorb shock waves to reduce the pressure, in addition to practicing stretching on the suro-archéliean area.
Heel pain usually affects the underside or back of the heel. Although heel pain is rarely a symptom of a serious condition, it can interfere with normal daily activities, particularly exercise. This condition can be treated by reducing the static disorder and absorbing the shock waves by reducing soil pressures.
Gonarthrosis is a premature wear and tear of the knee’s joint cartilage which causes difficulties when walking. A stiffness finally settles in. The treatment of the podiatrist aims to decompress this joint by limiting the friction in the compressed area and to practice simple exercises such as walking and swimming in order to strengthen the muscles and improve articular mobility.
Problems with the kneecap typically cause pain in the area around the kneecap. Often these symptoms are noticed doing specific activities such as stair walking (particularly downwards), prolonged sitting and kneeling. The treatment includes reducing activities that cause the pain thus resulting in the balancing of the static disorder.
Sartorius muscle tendinosis
Tendinosis, or chronic tendinosis is a tendon injury that causes a degeneration and weakening of the tendon. Playing sports and performing physical activities, along with the related repetitive motions, traumas, and injuries associated with them, is the usual cause of tendinosis. The treatment may include stretching of this area whilst correcting the static disorder in the back of the foot in order to help the knee.
Fascia Lata tendinosis or iliotibial band syndrome
The iliotibial (IT) band is a strong and thick band of fibrous tissue which runs from the outside of the thigh, where it extends from the tensor fascia lata muscle, down to the external part of the knee where it inserts onto the tibial bone. The main symptom of this syndrome is a pain and possibly swelling on the outer side of the knee or thigh. The treatment consist of using a wide array of manual therapy and muscle release techniques to correct the static disorder on the hindfoot which will then have an impact on the knee.